Purpose The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the effect of thresholding algorithms used in computer vision for the quantification of prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography (PET) derived tumor volume (PSMA-TV) in patients with advanced prostate cancer. The results were validated with respect to the prognostication of overall survival in patients with advanced-stage prostate cancer. Materials and methods A total of 78 patients who underwent [177Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 radionuclide therapy from January 2018 to December 2020 were retrospectively included in this study. [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-11 PET images, acquired prior to radionuclide therapy, were used for the analysis of thresholding algorithms. All PET images were first analyzed semi-automatically using a pre-evaluated, proprietary software solution as the baseline method. Subsequently, five histogram-based thresholding methods and two local adaptive thresholding methods that are well established in computer vision were applied to quantify molecular tumor volume. The resulting whole-body molecular tumor volumes were validated with respect to the prognostication of overall patient survival as well as their statistical correlation to the baseline methods and their performance on standardized phantom scans. Results The whole-body PSMA-TVs, quantified using different thresholding methods, demonstrate a high positive correlation with the baseline methods. We observed the highest correlation with generalized histogram thresholding (GHT) (Pearson r (r), p value (p): r = 0.977, p textless 0.001) and Sauvola thresholding (r = 0.974, p textless 0.001) and the lowest correlation with Multiotsu (r = 0.877, p textless 0.001) and Yen thresholding methods (r = 0.878, p textless 0.001). The median survival time of all patients was 9.87 months (95% CI [9.3 to 10.13]). Stratification by median whole-body PSMA-TV resulted in a median survival time from 11.8 to 13.5 months for the patient group with lower tumor burden and 6.5 to 6.6 months for the patient group with higher tumor burden. The patient group with lower tumor burden had significantly higher probability of survival (p textless 0.00625) in eight out of nine thresholding methods (Fig. 2); those methods were SUVmax50 (p = 0.0038), SUV ≥3 (p = 0.0034), Multiotsu (p = 0.0015), Yen (p = 0.0015), Niblack (p = 0.001), Sauvola (p = 0.0001), Otsu (p = 0.0053), and Li thresholding (p = 0.0053). Conclusion Thresholding methods commonly used in computer vision are promising tools for the semiautomatic quantification of whole-body PSMA-TV in [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-11-PET. The proposed algorithm-driven thresholding strategy is less arbitrary and less prone to biases than thresholding with predefined values, potentially improving the application of wholebody PSMA-TV as an imaging biomarker.